Tuesday, February 26, 2008

The grammar of CSS2

The grammar below defines the syntax of CSS2. It is in some sense, however, a superset of CSS2 as this specification imposes additional semantic constraints not expressed in this grammar. A conforming UA must also adhere to the forward-compatible parsing rules, the property and value notation, and the unit notation. In addition, the document language may impose restrictions, e.g. HTML imposes restrictions on the possible values of the "class
The grammar below is LL(1) (but note that most UA's should not use it directly, since it doesn't express the parsing conventions, only the CSS2 syntax). The format of the productions is optimized for human consumption and some shorthand notation beyond Yacc (see [YACC]) is used:

  • *: 0 or more

  • +: 1 or more

  • ?: 0 or 1

  • |: separates alternatives

  • [ ]: grouping



The productions are:


stylesheet
: [ CHARSET_SYM S* STRING S* ';' ]?
[S|CDO|CDC]* [ import [S|CDO|CDC]* ]*
[ [ ruleset | media | page | font_face ] [S|CDO|CDC]* ]*
;
import
: IMPORT_SYM S*
[STRING|URI] S* [ medium [ ',' S* medium]* ]? ';' S*
;
media
: MEDIA_SYM S* medium [ ',' S* medium ]* '{' S* ruleset* '}' S*
;
medium
: IDENT S*
;
page
: PAGE_SYM S* IDENT? pseudo_page? S*
'{' S* declaration [ ';' S* declaration ]* '}' S*
;
pseudo_page
: ':' IDENT
;
font_face
: FONT_FACE_SYM S*
'{' S* declaration [ ';' S* declaration ]* '}' S*
;
operator
: '/' S* | ',' S* | /* empty */
;
combinator
: '+' S* | '>' S* | /* empty */
;
unary_operator
: '-' | '+'
;
property
: IDENT S*
;
ruleset
: selector [ ',' S* selector ]*
'{' S* declaration [ ';' S* declaration ]* '}' S*
;
selector
: simple_selector [ combinator simple_selector ]*
;
simple_selector
: element_name? [ HASH | class | attrib | pseudo ]* S*
;
class
: '.' IDENT
;
element_name
: IDENT | '*'
;
attrib
: '[' S* IDENT S* [ [ '=' | INCLUDES | DASHMATCH ] S*
[ IDENT | STRING ] S* ]? ']'
;
pseudo
: ':' [ IDENT | FUNCTION S* IDENT S* ')' ]
;
declaration
: property ':' S* expr prio?
| /* empty */
;
prio
: IMPORTANT_SYM S*
;
expr
: term [ operator term ]*
;
term
: unary_operator?
[ NUMBER S* | PERCENTAGE S* | LENGTH S* | EMS S* | EXS S* | ANGLE S* |
TIME S* | FREQ S* | function ]
| STRING S* | IDENT S* | URI S* | RGB S* | UNICODERANGE S* | hexcolor
;
function
: FUNCTION S* expr ')' S*
;
/*
* There is a constraint on the color that it must
* have either 3 or 6 hex-digits (i.e., [0-9a-fA-F])
* after the "#"; e.g., "#000" is OK, but "#abcd" is not.
*/
hexcolor
: HASH S*
;

Lexical scanner


The following is the tokenizer, written in Flex (see [FLEX]) notation. The tokenizer is case-insensitive.
The two occurrences of "\377" represent the highest character number that current versions of Flex can deal with (decimal 255). They should be read as "\4177777" (decimal 1114111), which is the highest possible code point in Unicode/ISO-10646.
%option case-insensitive

h [0-9a-f]
nonascii [\200-\377]
unicode \\{h}{1,6}[ \t\r\n\f]?
escape {unicode}|\\[ -~\200-\377]
nmstart [a-z]|{nonascii}|{escape}
nmchar [a-z0-9-]|{nonascii}|{escape}
string1 \"([\t !#$%&(-~]|\\{nl}|\'|{nonascii}|{escape})*\"
string2 \'([\t !#$%&(-~]|\\{nl}|\"|{nonascii}|{escape})*\'

ident {nmstart}{nmchar}*
name {nmchar}+
num [0-9]+|[0-9]*"."[0-9]+
string {string1}|{string2}
url ([!#$%&*-~]|{nonascii}|{escape})*
w [ \t\r\n\f]*
nl \n|\r\n|\r|\f
range \?{1,6}|{h}(\?{0,5}|{h}(\?{0,4}|{h}(\?{0,3}|{h}(\?{0,2}|{h}(\??|{h})))))

%%

[ \t\r\n\f]+ {return S;}

\/\*[^*]*\*+([^/][^*]*\*+)*\/ /* ignore comments */

"" {return CDC;}
"~=" {return INCLUDES;}
"|=" {return DASHMATCH;}

{string} {return STRING;}

{ident} {return IDENT;}

"#"{name} {return HASH;}

"@import" {return IMPORT_SYM;}
"@page" {return PAGE_SYM;}
"@media" {return MEDIA_SYM;}
"@font-face" {return FONT_FACE_SYM;}
"@charset" {return CHARSET_SYM;}
"@"{ident} {return ATKEYWORD;}

"!{w}important" {return IMPORTANT_SYM;}

{num}em {return EMS;}
{num}ex {return EXS;}
{num}px {return LENGTH;}
{num}cm {return LENGTH;}
{num}mm {return LENGTH;}
{num}in {return LENGTH;}
{num}pt {return LENGTH;}
{num}pc {return LENGTH;}
{num}deg {return ANGLE;}
{num}rad {return ANGLE;}
{num}grad {return ANGLE;}
{num}ms {return TIME;}
{num}s {return TIME;}
{num}Hz {return FREQ;}
{num}kHz {return FREQ;}
{num}{ident} {return DIMEN;}
{num}% {return PERCENTAGE;}
{num} {return NUMBER;}

"url("{w}{string}{w}")" {return URI;}
"url("{w}{url}{w}")" {return URI;}
{ident}"(" {return FUNCTION;}

U\+{range} {return UNICODERANGE;}
U\+{h}{1,6}-{h}{1,6} {return UNICODERANGE;}

. {return *yytext;}

2 comments:

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Madhu Sudhan said...

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